History of Ellicott City Maryland

Ellicott City is a unincorporated network and statistics assigned spot in, and the province seat of, Howard County, Maryland, United States.Part of the Baltimore metropolitan territory, its populace was 65,834 at the 2010 census, qualifying it as the biggest unincorporated district seat in the nation.

Ellicott City’s notable midtown – the Ellicott City Historic District – lies in the valleys of the Tiber and Patapsco streams. The historically significant area incorporates the Ellicott City Station, which is the most established enduring train station in the United States, having been underlying 1830 as the primary end of the first B&O Railroad line. The architecturally significant area is frequently called “Memorable Ellicott City” or “Old Ellicott City” to recognize it from the encompassing rural areas that stretch out south to Columbia and west to West Friendship.



In 1766, James Hood utilized the “Maryland Mill Act of 1669” to censure 20 sections of land (8.1 ha) for a factory site contiguous his stream side 157-section of land (64 ha) property. His gristmill was based on the banks of the Patapsco River where the Frederick street (later known as the National Road, at that point U.S. Highway 40, at that point Maryland Route 144) crossed the stream. The site was later known as “Ellicott’s Upper Mills”.:7 His child Benjamin remade the corn pounding factory after one of the successive Patapsco floods in 1768. Benjamin Hood at that point offered the factory to Joseph Ellicott in 1774 for 1,700 pounds. In later years the B&O Railroad went through the property, with track laid over the graves of the Hood family.:23

On 24 April 1771, three Quaker siblings from Bucks County, Pennsylvania, north of Philadelphia, picked the pleasant wild a few miles upriver from Elk Ridge Landing (the present Elkridge, Maryland), the highest piece of the stream then safe by tobacco-stacking cruising vendor ships in the eighteenth century, to set up a flour plant, buying 50 sections of land (20 ha) of Baltimore County land from Emanuel Teal and 35 sections of land (14 ha) from William Williams. In 1775 they extended their property with 30.5 sections of land (12.3 ha) from Bartholomew Balderson and Hood’s Mill.:7 John, Andrew, and Joseph Ellicott established “Ellicott’s Mills”, which got one of the biggest processing and assembling towns in the East. Nathaniel sold his organization in 1777, and Joseph sold everything except his Hood’s Mill possession the following year.:9 The town held the name “Ellicott’s Mills” when the U.S. Postal stop opened on October 7, 1797.

The Ellicott siblings developed sawmills, smithies, corrals, an oil plant, a grain refinery, and grain mills.:12 They upset cultivating in the territory by convincing ranchers to plant wheat rather than tobacco and furthermore by acquainting Plaster of Paris manure with revive exhausted soil. The Ellicotts delivered the item until a fire on 11 January 1809. Charles Carroll of Carrollton (1737-1832), the last enduring endorser of the Declaration of Independence, an uncommon Roman Catholic and an affluent landowner with the biggest fortune then in provincial America, was an early powerful believer from tobacco to wheat. By 1830, the authors’ families could at this point don’t uphold activities as “Ellicott and Company” or “Johnathan Ellicott and Sons”. By 1840, the Ellicott family auctions off their inclinations in the two flour processes, the stone quarry, the saw plant and mortar mill.


In 1830, Ellicott’s Mills turned into the main end of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad outside Baltimore, the principal economically worked load and traveler railroad in the nation. The B&O was coordinated in 1827 and had its “first stone” laid the next year with significant functions on July 4, Independence Day, with the start of development. The Ellicott City Station, based on a bank across the side of the town and along the Patapsco River and converging Tiber Creek stream, with its “Oliver Viaduct”, named for a B&O board part Robert Oliver going across over the National Road of huge squares of privately quarried dim rock, stands today as a living history exhibition hall, and has been assigned a National Historic Landmark by the U.S. Division of the Interior, regulated by the National Park Service.:16 It bears the assignment as the “Most established enduring railroad station in America”. In 1829, New York industrialist and Baltimore foundry-proprietor Peter Cooper started testing his iron steam motor, Tom Thumb (1791-1883), on the B&O Railway. This was the first run through a steam train was utilized to ship people over rails in the United States. The renowned race between Tom Thumb and a pony drawn rail carriage occurred between Relay Junction on the return trip from Ellicott’s Mills towards Baltimore in August 1830. Despite the fact that the pony dominated the race because of an abrupt broken drive belt on the Tom Thumb, it proclaimed when steam motors consistently improved, and the prospective steam-worked railroad turned into an indispensable connection in the town’s economy and later growing to the city of Baltimore’s monetary incomparability alongside the state in the nation.

B&O Railroad Bridge over Main Street.

The site of the Howard County Courthouse, which was worked from 1840 to 1843 in the previous western Howard District of Anne Arundel County, Maryland, was so assigned for the new transitory region in 1839, and proceeded and was extended later when Howard County turned into an official autonomous locale in 1851, as one of the 23 provinces (in addition to Baltimore as a free city) in the territory of Maryland. The town in 1851 was in a spate of discouragement as low costs shut the Maryland Machine Manufacturing Company. More than 80 empty homes lined the Howard County side of the river. By 1861, Ellicott’s Mills was a prosperous cultivating and assembling zone.

Toward the beginning of the Civil War on April 19, 1861, “Gaithers Raiders”, part of the Confederate “Howard County Dragoons” from Oakland Manor, walked through Ellicott’s Mills to Baltimore, reacting to the Baltimore mob of 1861, preceding traveling south to join J. E. B. Stuart. Later that month, Union Army troops seized the “Winans Steam Gun” which had been on the way to Harpers Ferry, Virginia, at Ellicott’s Mills. The test firearm had been created by neighborhood Southern-supporter railroad manufacturer and industrialist Ross Winans.:22 In the fall of 1862, the twelfth New Jersey Volunteer Infantry was relegated to watch Ellicott’s Mills, setting up the 1,200-man Camp Johnson on the yard of the close by Patapsco Female Institute.:18 On July 10, 1864, the third Confederate attack of the North, driven by General Jubal Early, constrained the retreat of the Federal soldiers under the order of General Lew Wallace down the National Pike from the Battle of the Monocacy to the B.& O’s. Ellicott’s Mills station and to Baltimore. The one-day delay by Wallace’s little power at Monocacy Junction empowered Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Award to surge assembles time to shield the U.S. capital. Homes and houses of worship in Ellicott’s Mills were briefly utilized as emergency clinics for the Union wounded.

In 1866, cholera broke out. In the exact year, the Granite Mills cotton manufacturing plant claimed by Benjamin Detford consumed down.